Gongora odoratissima litho publ. Van Houtte, plate 229

The Genus Gongora

Ruiz & Pavon 1794

Edited 18 December 2007
© Nina Rach

This genus was named for Sr. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, one-time viceroy of New Granada (Colombia and Ecuador) and later Bishop of Cordoba; Governor of Peru during the Ruiz & Pavón expeditions. Rod Rice (2002) believes that there are 65-70 epiphytic species comprising the genus. They are all native to tropical America, from Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, through South America to Bolivia, but Colombia is the center of distribution, offering at least 28 different species, with additional taxa to be identified. The type species is Gongora quinquenervis, described by Hipólito Ruiz Lopez & J.A. Pavón in 1794 in their Prodromus Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis. Abbreviated Gga.

Grows epiphytically in wet forest from 0-1,000 meters. Pendent inflorescences with many flowers emerge from the base of the deeply ridged, quared pseudobulbs and then gracefully arch away from the plant. Cultivate most of the species under intermediate conditions, acidic, moist, heavy feeding, basket or pot. The leaves are generally lighter green, smaller, and more plicate than most stanhopeas.

Rand (1876), wrote "These plants are all very curiously formed, the flowers resembling a string of grasshoppers. They should be grown in hanging baskets, in moss and peat. The flower-spikes are very long, pendent, and freely produced. When in growth they should be kept moist and warm, but should have a long rest. Bloom during the summer."

Gongora book cover

This genus was recently surveyed by Rudolf Jenny in Caesiana 20 (2003). See the reviews of his 1993 monograph.

Rod Rice (2002) organizes the genus Gongora as follows:

Subgenus Gongora
Section Aceras with four species
Section Gongora with about 30-33 species [atropurpurea, catilligera, latisepala, odoratissima, rufescens]
Section Gratulabunda with four species
Section Grossa with five species
Section Truncata with nine species [charontis, dressleri, longipes, tracyana]
Subgenus Portentosa
one section with at least five species [escobariana, garayana, portentosa, sanderiana]
Subgenus Acropera
Section Acropera with one species
Section Armeniaca with two species and one to two subspecies
Section Cassidea with four species [amparoana, cassidea, galeata, tridentata]


Gongora Cookies and Cream (Gga. chocoensis x Gga. truncata). Reg. Q4 2006 by Hoosier (L. Glicenstein)
Gongora Colibre (Gga. fulva x Gga. chocoensis).
Gongora Eagle Wing (Gga. atropurpurea x Gga. chocoensis).
Gongora Gargoyle (Gga. ilense x Gga. horichiana).
Gongora Golden Condor (Gga. fulva x Gga. scaphyphorus).
Gongora Parakeet (Gga. fulva x Gga. horichiana).
Gongora Pterodactyl (Gga. atropurpurea x Gga. clavidora). A fantastic dark hybrid offered by Hoosier Orchids. See their website ( http://www.hoosierorchid.com/category.asp?CategoryCode=7) for photos.

Intergeneric combinations:

Corygora = Coryanthes x Gongora Ruiz & Pav.

Polygora [Plr.] J.M.H.Shaw = Gongora Ruiz & Pav. x Polycycnis Rchb.f.

Stangora [Stga.] = Gongora Ruiz & Pav. x Stanhopea
Stangora Elcimey (Stanhopea ecornuta x Gongora horichiana) -- reg. 1984 by Armacost & Royston (C.K. Horich)
Stangora Ombelle d'Automne (Gongora galeata x Stanhopea costaricensis) -- reg. Q1 2004 by M. & M.F. Bourdon
Stangora Quetzaquatl (Gga. chocoensis x Stan. tigrina) Reg. Q4 2006 by Hoosier (L. Glicenstein)

The species:

Gongora aceras Dressler, Orquideologia 6: 70, f. (1971). [Colombia; Ecuador] - an alba variety exists

Gongora amparoana Schlecter [Costa Rica-endemic]

Gongora armeniaca (Lindl. & Paxton) Reichb.f. 1854 [Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama] -- Dressler (1993) writes: "Plants from the Pacific slope are mostly the yellow or brownish-yellow subsp. armeniaca, while plants from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica are subsp. cornuta, in which the lip is more sharply angled above at the base, the sepals and petals are orange-yellow faintly spotted with red, and the lip is orange yellow." AOS award: Gongora armeniaca 'Panther Creek' CHM/82pts, Atlanta, Aug. 1989 (AQ 21/198).

Gongora aromatica Rchb. f. 1854 - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pav. 1798.
Gongora aromatica Dodson & Bennett 1989 -- See Gongora pleiochroma
AOS awards to "Gongora aromatica": 'Evets' JC, Atlanta, Sept. 1991 (AQ 23/216P); 'Penn Valley' CCM/87pts, NYC, March 1960 (RA 3/415).

~Gongora atropurpurea Hooker Exot.Fl. 3: t.178 (1827). [Panama; Colombia; VZ; Trinidad & Tobago; Guyana; Amazonian Brazil; Ecuador; Peru]; warm-growing --
AOS award: 'Longwood Gardens' CCM/82 pts, Philadelphia, March 1994 (AQ 26/8).
- See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

Gongora beyrodtiana Schltr. [Colombia]

~Gongora boothiana Hort. ex Reichb. f. Xen.Orch. 1 (1854) 54. - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

~Gongora bufonia Lindley 1841 [Brazil] --
AOS award: 'Santa Barbara' CBR, Los Angeles, August 1998 (AQ 30/108p).
- See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

Gongora cassidea Reichb. f. Bot.Zeit. 22:298 (1864) [Mexico; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica]; waxy flowers --
AOS awards: 'Knob Creek' CCM/87pts and CHM/85pts, Atlanta, July 1978 (AQ 11/26P).

Gongora catilligera R. Rice 2001 [Colombia]
Gongora charlesworthii Rolfe [Colombia]

Gongora charontis Rchb.f. 1877 [Panama; Colombia]

Gongora chocoensis Jenny 1990 [Colombia] - warm-growing; eye-spot; spicy fragrance; ex-maculata? --
AOS award: 'Adelaida' CHM/83pts, July 1998 (AQ 30/19).

Gongora claviodora Dressler, Orquideologia 7: 75 (1972). [Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia] - scent of clove oil; warm-grower --
AOS award: 'Fiddlehead Farm' CBR, Dallas, August 1988 (AQ 20/163P).

Gongora colombiana Jenny 1990 [Colombia] - warm-growing

Gongora donckelaariana Lem. 1858 - see Gongora unicolor Schlecter 1923

Gongora dressleri Jenny [Colombia]

Gongora ecornuta Jenny, Orchidee (Hamburg) 34: 61-70 (1983). [Ecuador]

Gongora escobariana Whitten [Colombia]
JOS Award: `Toddling Akiko' H.C.C. 77pts.

Gongora flaveola Reichb.f. 1886 [Colombia]

~Gongora fulva Lindley 1839 [Panama; Colombia; Brazil] - a.k.a. Gga. tricolor? See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798

Gongora galeata (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Xenia Orchidacea (1854) [Mexico]; several different color varieties. Photo from Jerusalem Botanical Garden, by Ori Fragman-Sapir.

Gongora galeata var. luteo-alba [taxonomist, year?] photo by Eric Hunt, Aug 2004

Gongora galleottiana Rich. & Gal., in Ann. Sci. Nat. III, 3:25 (1845).

Gongora garayana R.Rice 2000 Oasis The Journal 1(4) (1999) [Colombia]

Gongora gibba Dressler [Panama; Colombia]

Gongora gracilis Jenny, Orchidee (Hamburg) 36(3): 115 (1985). [Ecuador; Peru]

Gongora gratulabunda Reichb.f. 1857 [Colombia]

Gongora grossa Reichb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 1: 781 (1877). [Colombia; Ecuador] - warm-growing. Photo 1, Photo 2 from Jerusalem Botanical Garden, by Ori Fragman-Sapir

~Gongora heisteri Hort. ex Reichb.f., Walpers Ann. Bot. 6:596 (1863). - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

Gongora hirtzii Dodson & N.H. Williams, Lindleyana 4(1): 30 (1989). [Ecuador]

~Gongora histrionica Reichb.f. [Central America; Colombia] - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

Gongora hookeri (Klotzsch and H. Karst.) R.Rice in: Oasis Suppl. 3: 21, April 2004. [was Gga. maculata var. hookeri]

Gongora horichiana Fowlie, Orchid Digest 29: 247 (1965). [Costa Rica; Panama] Syn. Gga. armeniaca var. bicornuta (small-growing)

Gongora ilense Whitten & Jenny, Orchidee (Hamburg) 43(6): 270 (1992). [Ecuador]

~Gongora incarum Kraenzl. 1906 - See Gongora scaphephorus Rchb. f. & Warsz. 1854

Gongora irmgardii Jenny [Colombia]

~Gongora jenischii Hort. ex Reichb. f., 1 (1854) 54. - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

Gongora latisepala (Schwein. & Allen) Jenny [Colombia]
Gongora latisepala Rolfe 1918 [Peru]

~Gongora leuchochila Lemaire in Fl. des Serres, ser. 1, 1 207, t.37 (1845) [Mexico (Chiapas), Colombia] - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798.

Gongora maculata Lindley Bot. Reg. 19 t.1616 (1833) [Mexico; Central America; Guyana; Trinidad & Tobago] - the "Jack Spaniard" orchid.

Gongora maculata var. hookeri Klotzsch and H. Karst.

Gongora minax Rchb.f. [Colombia] - warm-growing

Gongora napoensis Jenny, Orchidee (Hamburg) 34(5): 197 (1983). [Ecuador]

Gongora nigrita Lindley, 25 Misc. p.59 (1839). See Gga. quinquenervis Ruiz and Pavon 1798.

~Gongora nigropunctata Schlecter 1921 [Peru] - See Gga. quinquenervis Ruiz and Pavon 1798.

~Gongora odoratissima Lemaire, ser. 1, 2 (1847) 229. [Colombia]. See Gga. maculata.

Gongora pardina Jenny, Orchidee (Hamburg) 36(3): 117 (1985). [Ecuador]

Gongora pleiochroma Reichb.f., Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 16: 421 (1860). [Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil; Ecuador; Peru]

Gongora portentosa Linden & Reichb.f. 1869 [Colombia] - spring-flowering

Gongora powelli Schlecter in Fedde. Repoert. Beih. 17 (1922) 62. [Panama]

Gongora pseudoatropurpurea Jenny 1990 [Colombia]

~Gongora quadricornis hort. ex Rchb. 1854 f. - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798

Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon, published in Syst. veg. 227 (1798). [Mexico; Costa Rica; Panama; Brazil; Ecuador; Peru] - a fall-flowering species. Dressler (1993) writes: "This catchall name is used for any Gongora that doesn't fit clearly in another species. The species was originally named from a Peruvian plant (a very poor specimen). Careful work is still needed to sort out the species in this complex." For instance, the following are all synonyms of Gga. quinquinervis: atropurpurea, boothiana, bufonia, fulva, heisteri, histrionica, jenischii, leuchochila, nigropunctata, quadricornis, quinquevulneris, retrorsa, shepherdii, and vitellina.

~Gongora quinquevulneris Beer 1854 - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798

~Gongora retrorsa Reichb. f., published in Bonpl. 2: 19 (1854). - See Gongora quinquenervis

Gongora rufescens Jenny, Orchidee (Hamburg) 36(3): 116 (1985). [Colombia; Ecuador; Peru]

Gongora saccata Reichb.f. [Colombia]

Gongora sanderiana Kraenzlin 1896 [Colombia; Ecuador; Peru]

Gongora scaphephorus Reichb.f. & Warsz., Bonplandia (Hanover) 2: 98 (1854). [Colombia; Ecuador; Peru] - warm-growing
Gongora scaphephorus 'Joy' FCC/AOC was named the Australian Orchid Council's Orchid Species of the Year, 2002. See photo and description.
OrchidMania Photo by Eric Hunt, July 2004.

Gongora seideliana Reichb.f. [Colombia]

~Gongora shepherdii Hort. ex Reichb. f., 1:54 (1854). - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798

Gongora similis Reichb.f. 1881 [Colombia] ex-gratulabunda?

Gongora sphaerica Jenny [Colombia] - warm-growing

Gongora stenoglossa Rchb. f. 1854 []

Gongora superflua Reichb.f., Xenia Orchid 2: 169 (1873). [Ecuador]

Gongora tracyana Rolfe [Peru]

Gongora tricolor (Lindl.) Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hanover) 2: 93 (1854). [Costa Rica; Panama] - resinous odor. Dressler (1993) writes: "One author has suggested that G. fulva is the correct name for this species, but the original illustration (of a plant of unknown origin) is not convincing. In a group as difficult as Gongora, names based on plants of unknown origin should remain in limbo."
AOS award: Gga. tricolor 'Autre Vie' HCC/AOS Feb 2002. 1 inflor. with twenty brightly-colored flowers.

Gongora tridentata Whitten

~Gongora truncata Lindley [Mexico; Belize; Honduras; Costa Rica] - bears 3 to 4 ft inflorescenses in summer. See Gongora unicolor

Gongora unicolor Schlecter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 19:229 (1923). [Mexico; Belize; Guatemala; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama] - has the odor of fresh-ground corn for tortillas ("nixtamal").

~Gongora viridifusca Hooker - See Cirrhaea dependens [Lodd.]G. Don 1850

~Gongora viridi-purpurea - Hkr. 1830 - See Cirrhaea dependens [Lodd.]Rchb.f 1850

~Gongora vitellina hort. ex Reichb.f., 1:54 (1854). - See Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798


Links to sites about Gongora:

International Plant Names Index [IPNI]

Gongora, by Raphael Carter [Gga. grossa & Gga. quinquinervis]

Species for the Genus Gongora

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador (CVPE)

Manual de la Flora de Costa Rica [S. suavis]

Peruvian Orchids by Carlos Hajek

Jay Pfahl's Orchid Species Pages on Gongora.

Articles in Oasis The Journal about Gongora:
1(1): Gongora flaveola, G. sphaerica, and G. charontis
1(3): Typification of the Genus Gongora
1(4): Gongora garayana - New Species from Columbia.

"Collectors Item: Gongora horichiana Fowlie," Atlanta Orchid Society newsletter, January 2004.

Orchids of the Andes - Gongoras for sale

Printed References:

___ (2003?) "4 New Gongora for South America," in: Oasis-- The Journal 2(3): pp. __.

Paul H. Allen 1949. Flora of Panama. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Paul H. Allen 1953. "Pollination in Gongora maculata," in: Ceiba 4(2): 121-125. The late Dr. Allen, a banana expert, spent much time in the tropics collecting and observing orchids. This is an excellent account of a first hand observation by a gifted naturalist. Drawings by Mrs. Dorothy O. Allen, the author's wife. [annotation by Dr. Josephy Arditti]

Oakes Ames and Donovan S. Correll (1952-1953). "Orchids of Guatemala," in: Fieldiana, Bot. 26: 1-727.

Oakes Ames and Donovan Stewart Correll (1985) Orchids of Guatemala and Belize. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 779p. - reprint [Gga. cassidea; maculata; quinquenervis]

La Asociación Salvadoreña de Orquideología, (downloaded Nov. 2005) "Especies de El Salvador," http://www.orquideasdeelsalvador.com/anexos/876172306-ESPECIES%20DE%20EL%20SALVADOR.doc
8 page list of all the species, followed by 11 pages on certain individual species. List contains: Gongora cassidea.

Helmut Bechtel, Phillip Cribb, Edmund Launert (1992) The Manual of Cultivated Orchid Species (Third Edition). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 585p.

David E. Bennett (1998) "___," in: Brittonia 50: 186-189.

David E. Bennett and Eric A. Christenson (1994) "___," in: Brittonia 46: 230-232.

David E. Bennett and Eric A. Christenson (2001) "___," in: Icones Orchidacearum Peruvianum 4: t.665.

Broadway (1918) "____," in: Bulletin Dept. Agric. Trinidad Tobago 17 (pt. 2): 97.

Broadway, Orchid Review 34 (1926) 171.

Rafael Lucas Rodriguez Caballero, Dora Emilia Mora, Maria Eugenia Barahona, Norris H. Williams (1986) Generos de Orquideas de Costa Rica. Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica. [pp. 226-229; watercolors of Gga. claviodora Dressler and Gga. armeniaca (Lindl.) Reichb.f.]

Guy Chiron and Roger Bellone (2005) Les orchidées de Guyane française. Ed. Tropicalia/AFCEV, 374 pages, 330 colour pictures, line drawings. In French only. Full description/order iinformation at http://www.richardiana.com/?rub=Guyane [Gongora nigrita, pleiochroma, et al.]

Dodson and Bennett (1989) [Gongora aromatica]

Calaway H. Dodson and P. de Dodson. (1984) Orchids of Ecuador. Fasc. 10, plates 901-1000. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum. The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 33577.

Calaway H. Dodson, Norris H. Williams, and W.M. Whitten (1989) "[Gongora hirtzii]," in: Lindleyana 4(1): 30-32.

Robert L. Dressler (1971) "[Gongora aceras]," in: Orquideologia 6: 70, f.

Robert L. Dressler (1972) "Dos especies nuevas de Gongora," in: Orquideologia 7(2): 71-77. [Gongora gibba; Gga. claviodora, Fig. 3]

Robert L. Dressler (1993) Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca. 374p.

Rodrigo Escobar, Ed. (1994) Native Colombian Orchids 5: 790.

Jack A. Fowlie (1965) "[Gongora horichiana]," in: Orchid Digest 29: 244.

Jack A. Fowlie (1985) "[Gongora cornuta]," in: Orchid Digest 49(5): 179.

Leslie A Garay and Gustavo A. Romero-Gonzalez (1999), "Gongora quinquenervis." in: Schedulae Orchidum II, Harvard Papers in Botany, 4(2): 481-482.

Leslie A Garay and Gustavo A. Romero-Gonzalez (2000) "___," in: Oasis, the journal 1(3): 5-6.

Gunther Gerlach (1995) "___," in: Journal fur den Orchideenfreund 2(4): 161-169. [Gga. lagunae]

Gunther Gerlach (1999, publ. 2000) Schlechter Orchideen, ed. 3, I/C(37?38): 2384. [Gongora section Aceras]

Gunther Gerlach (2000), Tribus Oncidieae. 80. Subtribus Stanhopeinae: 2384, in: Die Orchideen 3: 19.

Gunther Gerlach and H. Heider (2001) "___," in: Revista de la Sociedad Boliviana de Botanica 3(1/2): 5-9. [Gga. ileneana]

Gunther Gerlach and T. Toulemonde (Oct. 2001) "___," in: Orquideologia 22(1): 24-27 and 32. [Gga. arcuata]

Alex Hawkes [1965] (1987) Encyclopaedia of Cultivated Orchids. Faber and Faber, London.

Hoffmans (1843) "[Gongora irrorata]," in: rz. Orch. 53.-Cf. Bot. Zeit. i. 833.

Hooker (1827) "[Gongora atro-purpurea]," in: Exot. Fl. 3: 178.

Clarence Kl. Horich (1981) "Gongoras en Centro America," in: Orquidiologia 14(3): 231-253.

Rudolf Jenny (1977) "Gongorinae," in: Die Orchidee 28:174-176.

Rudolf Jenny (1978) "Gongorinae," in: Die Orchidee" 29:207-214.

Rudolf Jenny (1979) "Gongora quinquenervis Ruiz & Pavon 1798," in: Die Orchidee 30:123-124 Kulturkartei.

Rudolf Jenny (1979) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil I" in: Die Orchidee 30:137.

Rudolf Jenny (1981) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil I0 - Die Gruppe um Gongora truncata (2.Teil)," in: Die Orchidee 32:220.

Rudolf Jenny (1981) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil II," in: Die Orchidee 32:23.

Rudolf Jenny (1981) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil III," in: Die Orchidee 32:150.

Rudolf Jenny (1981) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil IV - Die Gruppe um Gongora truncata Lindley (1.Teil)," in: Die Orchidee 32:197.

Rudolf Jenny (1983) "Gongora napoensis, eine neue Art aus Ecuador," in: Die Orchidee 34:197.

Rudolf Jenny (1983) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil V - Gongora sanderiana, Gongora portentosa und Gongora ecornuta," in: Die Orchidee 34:61.

Rudolf Jenny (1983) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil VI - Gongora gibba, Gongora aromatica, Gongora grossa, Gongora fulva," in: Die Orchidee 34:147.

Rudolf Jenny (1984) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil IX - Gongora claviodora und Gongora odoratissima," in: Die Orchidee 35:172.

Rudolf Jenny (1984) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil VII - Nachtraege und Ergaenzungen zu den Teilen III und V," in: Die Orchidee 35:82.

Rudolf Jenny (1984) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil VIII - Gongora unicolor & Gongora nigropunctata," in: Die Orchidee 35:70.

Rudolf Jenny (1984) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil X - Gongora galeottiana Rich. & Gal.," in: Die Orchidee 35:239.

Rudolf Jenny (1985) "Genus Gongora, 1. The Gongora truncata Lindley Alliance," in: Orchid Digest 49:135.

Rudolf Jenny (1985) "Genus Gongora, 2. The Gongora armeniaca (Ldl.) Rchb.f. Alliance," in: Orchid Digest 49:175.

Rudolf Jenny (1985) "Genus Gongora, 3. The Gongora sanderiana Kraenzlin Alliance," in: Orchid Digest 49:217.

Rudolf Jenny (1985) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XI - Drei neue Gongora-Arten, Gongora gracilis, rufescens und pardina," in: Die Orchidee 36:113.

Rudolf Jenny (1985) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XII - Gongora atropurpurea und Gongora nigrita," in: Die Orchidee 36:158.

Rudolf Jenny (1985) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XIII - Gongora bufonia Lindley und Checkliste aller bisher bekannt gewordenen Gongora-Namen," in: Die Orchidee 36:238.

Rudolf Jenny (1986) "Die Gongorinae, 6.Gongora, Teil XIV: Einige Ergaenzungen und Korrekturen," in: Die Orchidee 37:3-7.

Rudolf Jenny (1986) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XV - Gongora gratulabunda und Gongora similis in: Die Orchidee 37:167.

Rudolf Jenny (1986) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XVI - Gongora pleiochroma, Gongora minax, Gongora longipes, Gongora latisepala," in: Die Orchidee 37:281.

Rudolf Jenny (1987) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XIX - Nachtraege zu den Teilen V, XVI und XVII," in: Die Orchidee 38:276.

Rudolf Jenny (1987) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XVII - Gongora superflua, Gongora powellii und Gongora retrorsa," in: Die Orchidee 38:10.

Rudolf Jenny (1987) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XVIII - Gongora maculata und Gongora leucochila," in: Die Orchidee 38:140.

Rudolf Jenny (1988) "Notwendige Neotypifikationen in der Subtribus Gongorinae," in: Die Orchidee 39:180.

Rudolf Jenny (1990) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XIX - Nachtraege und zwei neue Arten," in: Die Orchidee 41:203.

Rudolf Jenny (1990) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XVIII - Neue Gongora-Arten aus Kolumbien," in: Die Orchidee 41:120.

Rudolf Jenny (1991) "Der Subtribus Gongorinae," in: Orchidees, Culture et Protection, No.1, 1991, p.61 - 65; also as Actes du 8eme congres Europeen d'Orchidees, Palais Chaillot, Paris 1988, 1991, p.61-65.

Rudolf Jenny (1992a) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora - Teil XX - Neue Erkenntnisse (Teil 1)," in: Die Orchidee 43:268.

Rudolf Jenny (1992b) "Gongora superflua Rchb.f. 1874," in: Die Orchidee 43:707-708, Kulturkartei.

Rudolf Jenny (1993a) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora Teil XX - Neue Erkenntnisse (Teil 2)," in: Die Orchidee 44:195.

Rudolf Jenny (1993b) "Gongorinae, 6. Gongora, Teil XX - Neue Erkenntnisse (Teil 3)," in: Die Orchidee 44:289-296.

Rudolf Jenny (1993c) "Gongora minax Rchb.f.," in: Die Orchidee 44:715-716; Kulturkartei.

Rudolf Jenny (1993d) "Gongora cassidea Rchb.f. 1864," in: Die Orchidee 44: Kulturkartei, p.725-726.

Rudolf Jenny (1993e) "Gongora scaphephorus Rchb.df. & Warsz. 1854," in: Die Orchidee, 44:731-732; Kulturkartei.

Rudolf Jenny (1993f) "Gongora minax Rchb.f. - Gongora atropurpurea Hooker - Gongora pseudoatropurpura Jenny - Gongora nigrita Lindl., quatro especies em questao in: Orquidario 7:63.

Rudolf Jenny (1993g) Monograph of the genus Gongora Ruiz & Pavón (transl. M. Sommer & C. d'Heureuse). Koeltz Scientific Books, Champaign, IL, U. S. A./Königstein, Germany.

Rudolf Jenny (1996) "The genus Gongora," in: Orchids 65:1164-1169.

Rudolf Jenny (2003) "Gongora, a status recognized since 1993 and a current checklist," in: Caesiana 20: 1-34. [36 figures]

Rudolf Jenny and Robert Dressler (1990) Nachtrag zu Neue Gongora-Arten aus Kolumbien in Heft 4/1990 in: Die Orchidee 41:157.

F. Klotzsch (1852) "___," in: Otto & Dietrichs Allgemeine artenzeitung 20:186.

Fr. Kraenzlin (1906) "[Gongora incarum]," in: Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 388.

Lucien Linden (1896) Journal des Orchidees. Gand, Imprimerie Eug. Vander Haeghen, 347p. [1 Sept: Gongora atropurpurea, p.181]

Jim and Barbara McQueen (1993) Orchids of Brazil. The Text Publishing Company, Melbourne, Australia. 200p. [Gga. bufonia; quinquinervis]

Rogers McVaugh (28 June 1985) Flora Novo-Galiciana, A Descriptive Account of the Vascular Plants of Western Mexico, Vol. 16: Orchidaceae. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, pp. 127-129. [Gga. galeottiana]

Luis Carlos Nepomuceno, Wolmar da Silva Cevidanes, Euzamar Cardoso da Silveira Lima, and Jair Pereira da Silva (1996) Orquideas de Carajas / Orchids from Carajas. Rio de Janeiro: Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, 60p. [Gga. quinquenervis]

Pedro Ortiz V., Alfonso Martinez M., and Guillermo Misas U. (1982) Orquidea Ornamentales de Colombia (Ornamental Orchids of Colombia), Bogota: Carlos Valencia Editores. [Gga. saccata]

Guido F.J. Pabst and F. Dungs (1975) Orchidaceae Brasilienses, Volume I. Hildesheim: Brücke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow.

Guido F.J. Pabst and F. Dungs (1977) Orchidaceae Brasilienses, Volume II. Hildesheim: Brücke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow.

Edward Sprague Rand (1876) Orchid Culture. New York: The Rural Publishing. [Orchids. A Description of the Species and Varieties Grown at Glen Ridge... A Complete Manual of Orchid Culture].
Link to this book at the Digital Orchid Library, http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/orchids. Gongora on pp. 284-286: Gongora atropurpurea, bufonia, fulva, leucochila, maculata, maculata alba, maculata tricolor, nigrita, portentosa, truncata, vitellina.

S.S. Renner, H. Balslev, & L. B. Holm-Nielson (1990) "Flowering Plants of Amazonian Ecuador - A Checklist," in: AAU Reports, 24: 242.

Rod Rice (1997) "Some Species of the Subgenus Gongora," in: Orchids Australia 9(5): 46-52.

Rod Rice (1998) "[Gongora alfieana]," in: Australian Orchid Review 63(5): 14. [without diagnostic latin descr.?]

Rod Rice (1999) "____," in: Oasis, the journal 1(1):14-15.

Rod Rice (2000), "Gongora garayana R.Rice sp. nov. A New Species of the Subgenus Portentosa from Colombia," in: Oasis, The Journal 1(4): 3-6 and 9-10.

Rod Rice (April 2001), "A Checklist of the Genus Gongora in Colombia," in: Orchids Australia 13(2): 41-45.

Rod Rice (2001a), "____," in: Oasis, The Journal, Supp. 1: 5-7. [Gga. alfieana]

Rod Rice (2001b), "Gongora catilligera R.Rice sp. nov. A Unique Taxon of Section Gongora from Colombia," in: Oasis, The Journal, Supp. 2: 2-6.

Rod Rice (Sept-Oct 2002), "A Selection of Rare or Confused Gongora in Cultivation," in: Orchid Review v. 110 (1247): 288-295. [Gga. amparoana, catilligera, charontis, escobariana, garayana, latisepala, longipes, odoratissima, portentosa, powellii, quinquenervis, retrorsa, rufescens]

Rod Rice (2003a) "Gongorana," in: Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (Orchidac.) 14. [Gongora sect. Atropurpurea]

Rod Rice (2003b) "Gongorana," in: Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (Orchidac.) 16. [Gongora sect. Charontis]

Rod Rice (2003c) "Gongorana," in: Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (Orchidac.) 21. [Gongora sect. Diversa, sect. Erectae, and sect. Galleottiae]

Rod Rice (2003d) "Gongorana," in: Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (Orchidac.) 25. [Gongora subsect. Brevipetala and subsect. Monolobae]

Rod Rice (2003e) "Gongorana," in: Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (Orchidac.) 27. [Gongora sect. Hirtzia]

Rod Rice (2003f) "Gongorana," in: Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (Orchidac.) 29. [Gongora dylaniana]

Rod Rice (April 2004) "Gongora hookeri (Klotzsch and H. Karst.) R.Rice," in: Oasis Suppl. 3: 21. [was Gga. maculata var. hookeri] A. Rich. & Galeotti (1845), Gongora galleottiana, in Ann. Sci. Nat. III, 3: 25. [type publication]

Hipólito Ruiz (1931) A partial copy of the handwritten notes of Ruiz's Relación. Published in Spain. Edited by Padre Agustín Jesús Barreiro.

Hipólito Ruiz (1940) Travels of Ruiz, Pavón, and Dombey in Peru and Chile (1777–1788), Chicago: Botanical Series, Field Museum of Natural History, Volume 21. English translation by Dr. Boris Eric Dahlgren of the 1931 partial copy published in Spain.

Hipólito Ruiz (1998) The Journals of Hipolito Ruiz: Spanish Botanist in Peru and Chile, 1777--1788, Timber Press, 369 p. Translated by Richard Evans Schultes and María José Nemry von Thenen de Jaramillo-Arango; transcribed from the original manuscripts by Jaime Jaramillo-Arango.
"Ruiz spent 11 years exploring the villages and botanical landscapes of Peru and Chile. His journals contain detailed, personal observations of about 2000 plants, along with his impressions of the culture and perils of exploration in South America."

Hipólito Ruiz Lopez and J.A. Pavón (1794) Prod. 117. t. 25.

Richard Evans Schultes 1960. Native Orchids of Trindad and Tobago. Pergamon Pres Inc., Oxford. 275p. [Gga. atropurpurea; maculata]

Tom Sheehan & Marian Sheehan 1971. "Orchid Genera, Illustrated XX Gongora," in: Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 40(3): 244-245.

Miguel Angel Soto Arenas (2003) "Diversidad de orquideas en la region El Momon-Margaritas-Montebello [Chiapas]," Final report of CONABIO Project R225, from Nov. 30, 1998 to Sept. 30, 2001. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/institucion/proyectos/resultados/InfR255.pdf [Gongora galeata, leucochila, truncata]

W. Mark Whitten & Norris H. Williams (1991) "Gongora escobarina Whitten, a new species from Colombia, and the rediscovery of Gongora sanderiana in Peru (1)," in: Orquideologia (Col.) 18: 110-112.

W. Mark Whitten & Norris H. Williams (1991) "____," in: Lindleyana 6: 109-111.

W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams, and Mark W. Chase (2000) "Subtribal and Generic Relationships of Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae) with Emphasis on Stanhopeinae: Combined Molecular Evidence," in: American Jour. of Botany 87(12): 1842-1856. Article in .pdf format

L.O. Williams (1956). "An enumeration of the Orchidaceae of Central America, British Honduras, and Panama," in: Ceiba 5: 1-256.

L.O. Williams and P.H. Allen 1980. Orchids of Panama. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

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