Stanhopea candida

Barb. Rodr. 1877

Native to Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil

Updated 20 July 2007
© Nina Rach


Stanhopea candida from Dr. Guenter Gerlach, Munich Botanical Garden

Original publication: Gen. Sp. Orchid. 1: 101. 1877

This species is native to the Amazonian basin, generally found growing in warm conditions from 0 - 500 m elevation. It is pollinated by the Euglossa ignita bee.

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The plant pictured at left is from the Munich Botanic Garden (Botanischer Garten Muenchen).
Digital image courtesy of Dr. Guenter Gerlach, Curator.

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Stanhopea candida 'Limrick' CBR/AOS

Stanhopea grandiflora 'Limrick' CBR/AOS (79 pts)

Awarded at the West Palm Beach Judging Center, 1991

Exhibitor:
Although the photo at right is labeled and was awarded by the AOS at the West Palm Beach judging center as Stanhopea candida, it has since been identified and entered into the Awards Quarterly as Stanhopea grandiflora.

More recently, it has been suggested by Dr. Guenter Gerlach of the Munich Botanic Garden (Botanischer Garten Muenchen) that the cultivar 'Limrick' is actually Stanhopea reichenbachiana. Note the considerable difference in the structure of the lip from the photo of the true Stanhopea candida, above.

The photo at right is from the Orchid Photo Page, taken by Greg Allikas

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Printed References:

Kenneth J. Curry, Lorraine M. McDowell, Walter S. Judd, & William Louis Stern (May 1991) "Osmophores, Floral Features, and Systematics of Stanhopea (Orchidaceae)," in: American Journal of Botany 78(5): 610-623. "The floral fragrance glands (osmophores) of 18 species of Stanhopea and Sievekingia were examined through a series of developmental studies at light and electron microscope levels including late bud stages through postanthesis." [Sievekingia; Stanhopea anfracta, annulata, candida, ecornuta, gibbosa, martiana, oculata, pulla, radiosa, ruckeri, saccata, shuttleworthii, tigrina, vasquezii, and wardii] Link to abstract: http://www.botany.org/ajb/00029122_di001922.php

Calaway H. Dodson & P. M. Dodson (1982) "Orchids of Upland Ecuador" in: Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, 5: 401--500.

Calaway H. Dodson (1975) "Orchids of Ecuador: Stanhopea," in: Selbyana, 1(2): 114--129.

Calaway H. Dodson (1988) "A list of the orchid species reported for Ecuador," in: Orquídeas de la costa del Ecuador, 115--129.

Barney Greer (Sept. 1998) The Astonishing Stanhopeas (the upside-down orchids). Sydney: Australian Orchid Foundation. 92 color pages, including 55 known species and five natural hybrids. [p.34, with color photo]

Rudolf Jenny (Jan-Feb-Mar 1993) 'The Genus Stanhopea in Colombia,' in: Orchid Digest 57(1): 17.

Rudolf Jenny (Dec. 2003) "The Genus Stanhopea. Part 1: S. anfracta to S. napoensis," in: Caesiana no. 21, Supplement. 200 color photos, 160 p., Italian/English, covers 32 species.

William Nauray and Lucero Acurio (2001) "Orchids of the Lower Urubamba Region, Peru," in: Alfonso Alonso, Francisco Dallmeier, Patrick Campbell (eds.) Urubamba: The Biodiversity of a Peruvian Rainforest. Smithsonian Institution, SI/MAB Biodiversity Program, 218 pp., [article, pp. 33-36, Stanhopea candida]
Link: nationalzoo.si.edu/ConservationAndScience/MAB/documents/SIMAB7.pdf

S.S. Renner, H. Balslev, and L.B. Holm-Nielsen (1990) "Flowering plants of Amazonian Ecuador---A checklist," in: AAU Reports 24: 1--241.


Web References:

Stanhopea page from the Peruvian Orchid Club [English version]

Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador (CVPE) in the W3 TROPICOS database at MOBOT
Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador was published 30 July 1999 and is available in book form through the Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Orquideas Colombianas y sus Polinizadores (Colombian Orchids and their Pollinators [Stan. candida = Euglossa ignita bee]


Comments? Questions? Send e-mail: stanhopea@autrevie.com

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